Leukopenia is a state where an Individual has a Diminished Amount of white blood cells. This raises the risk of diseases.
An Individual’s blood is composed of many distinct kinds of cells. White blood cells, also called leukocytes to fight infection. Leukocytes are an essential part of our immune system.
Some of the individuals who have leukopenia have fewer white blood cells have a greater chance to have infections.
In this article, we tell you the impact of leukopenia on the Body, which causes it, and the treatment choices available.
What is leukopenia?
To fight against infections, white blood cells play a key role in the body. The leukopenia patient doesn’t have sufficient white blood cells.
Leukopenia is a state where an Individual has fewer white Blood cells in their blood than they need to. Leukopenia is diagnosed using a blood test called a complete blood count or CBC.
The amount of healthy white blood cells is between 3,500 and 11,000 white blood cells per microliter. Someone who has leukopenia might have lesser than 3,500 white blood cells per microliter.
In the bone marrow, white blood cells are made and are very crucial for the immune system. If you have less than the required white blood cell that means the body is less able to fight infections and diseases.
White blood cells are of five types. Each protects your immune system from a different sort of disease:
Neutrophils: All these constitute 55 to 70 Percentage of white blood cells. They help fight against bacterial and fungal diseases.
Basophils: These are the most typical Kind of this white Cells that are involved in inflammatory responses to allergens.
Lymphocytes: All these are the next most common kind of white blood cells. They help in shielding our body from biological diseases.
Monocytes: These white blood cells are the largest ones in this list. They play a key role in fighting against viruses, parasites, and germs. They also help fix tissue that’s been ruined by inflammation.
Eosinophils: All these combat parasites play a role in ailments and Allergic reactions, for example, asthma.
Above are five different types of leukopenia that corresponding to the kind of white blood cell that’s affected.
Differences between Leukopenia and neutropenia
Leukopenia and neutropenia are the terms that are usually used interchangeably. But both terms refer to slightly different problems.
Leukopenia is an umbrella term that describes some decrease in any of those white blood cell types.
Neutropenia is a type of leukopenia but describes especially to a reduction in neutrophils which is the most frequent kind of white blood cells.
An Individual’s neutrophil count is a significant index of their disease risk.
An absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is a test that physicians may execute to determine an individual’s overall wellbeing. This evaluation can help diagnose ailments that have leukemia. Also, it can help evaluate the human body’s reaction to therapies, such as chemotherapy.
Someone with leukopenia may be more vulnerable to infections that might cause symptoms like sweating, fever, and chills.
There are no definite symptoms of having a low white blood cell count. But when somebody has leukopenia, they have more chances of infections. The Signs of the disease include:
Someone with leukopenia Might Have additional symptoms that Relate to the origin of the low white blood cell count. The causes of leukopenia are given below.
There are numerous medical conditions that reason for leukopenia by interfering with the making of white blood cells from the bone marrow.
Other ailments can be the reason for leukopenia by destroying white blood cells instead of affecting their creation. Also, Leukopenia might be the consequence of several drugs and treatments.
Conditions that may lead to leukopenia
These below conditions may lead to leukopenia:
- Infectious diseases: HIV, AIDS, and tuberculosis are some examples. As per a 2015 research, girls with tuberculosis are more probably to develop leukopenia compared to guys.
- Viral infections: Acute viral diseases like flu and colds can cause temporary leukopenia. In the brief term, a viral disease may interrupt the production of white blood cells in an individual’s bone marrow.
- Cancer: Other cancers and Leukemia can damage the bone marrow that may result in leukopenia.
- Blood cell and bone marrow conditions: All these may result in leukopenia. Examples include the overactive spleen, myelodysplastic syndromes, and aplastic anemia.
- Autoimmune disorders: A number of those kill white blood cells. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.
- Birth ailments: Also called congenital ailments, these can cause leukopenia. Examples include myelokathexis and Kostmann syndrome.
- Malnutrition: Deficiencies of Specific nutrients and vitamins can cause leukopenia. Cases include deficiencies in zinc, vitamin B-12, copper, and folate.
- Sarcoidosis: This may an overreaction of the immune system which contributes to small regions of inflammation within the body. Also, it may have an impact on the bone marrow.
Treatments and medications that may cause leukopenia
Cancer therapies may affect an Individual’s white blood cell count, resulting in leukopenia. Below are some examples which may have this effect include:
- Radiation treatment
- Bone marrow transplant
Specific medications can also disturb the Number of white Blood cells in somebody’s blood and might cause leukopenia. Medicines that may have this impact include:
- bupropion, an smoking cessation medication, and an antidepressant
- Interferons to take care of multiple sclerosis
- sodium valproate and lamotrigine for epilepsy and as mood stabilizers
- Bupropion, an antidepressant, and smoking cessation medicine
- clozapine, an antipsychotic medication
- a frequent antibiotic Minocycline
- immunosuppressants, such as mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, tacrolimus, and cyclosporine
If someone is unsure about this generic name of the medication they are taking, when it is going to affect his/her immune system, it’s a great idea for them to request a physician.
If someone body is fighting against infection, this may Influence their white blood cell count. They might have slightly fewer white blood cells circulating in their blood. This problem is known as pseudoleukopenia.
Pseudoleukopenia is the point before leukopenia. If an Individual’s white blood cells are continuously reduced, they might go on to create leukopenia.
Treatments are generally dependent on the particular source of leukopenia.
If the medicine is initiating leukopenia, a Physician may recommend that an individual stops taking it or tries another kind. Someone should not stop or alter their medicine without first consulting with a physician.
If an Individual has cancer and their chemotherapy is inducing Leukopenia, they might want to pause their therapy to permit their white blood cells to rejuvenate.
Treatments using growth factors, such as granulocyte Colony-stimulating variable, can help leukopenia. These are typically utilized when chemotherapy is inducing leukopenia or when the cause is hereditary.
According to Research, if chemotherapy has been used alongside a medication called erlotinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, the chance of leukopenia substantially lower.